On February 1st, 1961, Dr. James Till and Dr. Ernest McCulloch published a paper in “Radiation Research” that proved the existence of stem cells – cells that can self-renew repeatedly for various uses. Both worked for the Ontario Cancer Institute (OCI) at the time and put Canada on the map for stem cell research.
July 12, 1974: Congress Bans All Federally Funded Fetal Tissue Research
The 93rd Congress implements a ban on nearly all federally funded fetal tissue research until the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research devises guidelines for it.
July 12, 1974: National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research
The National Research Act established the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research within the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare to define policy for protection of human subjects during medical and/or scientific experiments.
1980: President Reagan Kills Ethics Advisory Board
President Ronald Reagan decides not to renew the Ethics Advisory Board’s charter. The EAB had recommended federally funded investigations into the safety of in vitro fertilization using human embryos developed in vitro for no more than 14 days, but a de facto moratorium halts federal funding of human embryo research due to the EAB’s disbanding.
1988: Federal Panel Approves Funding of Embryo Research
Human Fetal Tissue Transplantation Research Panel reopens the question and votes 18-3 to approve the federal funding of embryo research. Despite this level of support for the research, the Department of Health and Human Services accepts the testimony of three conservative dissenters who argue that embryonic research would lead to an increase in abortions, and in response, extends the moratorium on this research.
1993: President Clinton Executive Order Lifts Moratorium
HHS Secretary Donna Shalala lifts the moratorium on federal funding of human embryonic research in accordance with President Bill Clinton’s executive order.
1994: President Clintion Reverses Order
A National Institutes of Health human embryonic researcher panel supports the research but thousands of letters urge President Clinton to reverse his earlier decision. He agrees and federal funding of embryonic research is halted.
1995: Dickey-Wicker Amendment
Congress bans the federal funding for research on embryos through the Dickey-Wicker Amendment, named after its sponsors Jay Dickey (R-AR) and Roger Wicker (R-MI). The amendment prohibits the use of federal funds for “the creation of human embryo or embryos for research purposes; or research in which a human embryo or embryos are destroyed, discarded, or knowingly subjected to risk of injury or death greater than that allowed for research on fetuses in utero.
1998: James Thomson Isolates Human Embryonic Stem Cells
University of Wisconsin scientist James Thomson isolates human embryonic stem cells and shows their potential to rejuvenate and to specialize into tissues. This discovery also initiates the ethical debate on human embryonic stem cell research because his team derives the stem cells through a process that destroys human embryos.
August 25, 2000: NIH Guidelines for Research Go Into Effect
NIH Guidelines for Research Using Human Pluripotent Stem Cells are published in the Federal Register over the summer and go into effect. They stipulate: human embryonic stem cells must be derived with private funds from frozen embryos from fertility clinics; they must have been created for fertility treatment purposes; be in excess of the donor’s clinical need; and obtained with the consent of the donor. These guidelines also outlawed the federal funding of stem cells derived from embryos created by SCNT, even if the derivation took place with private funds.
August 2001: President Bush Prohibits Federal Funding of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research
President Bush prohibits the federal funding of any research using stem cell lines derived after August 9, 2001, but his policy does not affect research in the private sector or research conducted with state funding. The president claims that more than 60 stem cell lines are available for funding.
June 20, 2007: President Bush Calls for Work on Alternate Sources
President Bush issues an executive order calling upon the HHS secretary to support and encourage research on alternative sources of pluripotent stem cells. He also requests that the Human Embryonic Stem Cell Registry be renamed the Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Registry.
November 2007: Yamanaka and Thomson Independently Derive iPS Cells
Shinya Yamanaka of Kyoto University and James Thomson of the University of Wisconsin-Madison both publish papers on their separate discoveries of induced pluripotent stem cells. These pluripotent cells were created from skin cells that had four genes inserted into them with viruses. This procedure resulted in the skin cells acquiring properties similar to embryonic stem cells. Researchers were able to coax these so-called iPS cells into becoming beating heart cells and nerve cells.
March 9, 2009: President Obama Reverses George W. Bush’s 2001 Executive Order
President Obama Issues Executive Order: Removing Barriers to Responsible Scientific Research Involving Human Stem Cells
January, 2011 Animal Stem Cell Procedure and Treatment Very Successful
MediVet is leading the way in veterinary and animal performance, breeding, recovery, repair and general wellness sector as related to prominent cellular and natural treatments.
Now having developed an In House procedure to gather stem cells from the patient, seperate and activate the cells and then reintroduce those cells directly to the area in which they are needed to rejuvinate the area for repair. The procedure takes only about four hours.
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